Section 1: Human Factors in Medicine

  1. Mentis, H., Chellali, A., Schwaitzberg, S., Cao, C.G.L. (submitted March 29, 2014). Assessing the effect of distraction on surgical performance: A meta-analysis to guide training. Journal of Surgery.
  2. Chellali, A., Schwaitzberg, S., Jones, D, Romanelli, J., Miller, A., Rattner, D., Roberts, K., Cao, C.G.L. (in print). Towards scar-free surgery: An analysis of the increasing complexity from laparoscopic surgery to NOTES. Surgical Endoscopy.
  3. Olasky, J., Chellali, A, Zhang, L., Sankaranarayanan, G., Cao, C.G.L. (2014). Effects of sleep hours and fatigue on performance in laparoscopic surgery simulators. Surgical Endoscopy. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-014-3503-0
  4. Perez, R.S., Skinner, A., Weyrauch, P., Niehaus, J., Lathan, C., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2013).  Prevention of surgical skill decay. Military Medicine, Special Issue on Designing and Using Computer Simulations in Medical Education and Training, 178, 76-86.
  5. Zhang, L. & Cao, C.G.L. (2012).  Effect of automatic image realignment on visuomotor coordination in laparoscopic surgery.  Applied Ergonomics, 43(6), 993-1001. DOI:10.1016/j.apergo.2012.02.001.
  6. Conrad, C., Konuk, Y., Werner, P., Cao, C.G.L., Warshaw, A., Rattner, D., Jones, D.B., Gee, D. (2012). A quality improvement study on avoidable stressors and countermeasures affecting surgical motor performance and learning.  Annals of Surgery, 255(6), 1190.
  7. Cao, C.G.L., Weinger, M., Slagle, J., Zhou, C., et al. (2008).  Differences in Day and Night Shift Clinical Performance in Anesthesiology.  Human Factors, 50(2), 276-290.
  8. Tessier, C., Zhang, L., Cao, C.G.L. (accepted). Ergonomic considerations in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): A case study. IEA 2012 Meeting, Recife, Brazil, February 12-16, 2012.
  9. Alvarado, C. & Cao, C.G.L. (2004). Panel: The role of human factors in healthcare - 2020. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 1764-1767.

Section 2: Haptics in Endoscopic Surgery

  1. Zhang, L., Grosdemouge, C., Sankaranarayanan, G., Anh, W., Sreekanth, A.V., De, S., Jones, D., Schwartzberg, S., Cao, C.G.L. (2012). Added value of virtual reality technology and force feedback for surgical training simulators. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 41(0), 2288-92.
  2. Greenwald, D., Cao, C.G.L, Bushnell, E. W. (2012).  Haptic detection of artificial tumors by hand and with a tool in a MIS environment.  IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 5(2), 131-138. DOI: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TOH.2011.68
  3. Zhou, M., Tse, S., Derevianko, A., Jones, D.B., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2011).  Effect of haptic feedback in laparoscopic surgery skill acquisition.  Surgical Endoscopy, 26(4), 1128-1134.
  4. Wong, S.C., Dumas, C., Grosdemouge, C., Cao, C.G.L. (2011). Haptic Sensitivity in Compliance Evaluation in a Tool-Wielding Paradigm. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1175-1179.
  5. Takač, B., Chellali, A., Dumas, C., Milleville, I., Grosdemouge, C., Cao, C.G.L. (2011). Haptic Communication for a 2D Pointing Task in a Virtual Environment. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2168-2172.
  6. Zhou, M. & Cao, C.G.L. (2009). Vibrotactile feedback improves laparoscopic palpation skills. Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 738-742.
  7. Zhou, M. & Cao, C.G.L. (2009). Application of vibrotactile stimulation to augment haptic perception in minimally invasive surgery. Proceedings of the 2009 International Ergonomics Association Congress, Beijing, China, August 9-14, 2009.
  8. Bell, A. & Cao, C.G.L. (2009). Vibration frequency modulation for force-feedback delivery in laparoscopic surgery. Proceedings of the 2009 International Ergonomics Association Congress, Beijing, China, August 9-14, 2009.
  9. Bell, A., Schwaitzberg, SD, Cao, C.G.L. (2009). Using vibration to provide force information during surgery. Presented at the 2009 Meeting of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, April 22-25, 2009, Phoenix, Arizona.
  10. Zhou, M., Perreault, J., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2008) Effects of experience on force perception threshold in minimally invasive surgery. Surgical Endoscopy, 22, 510-515.
  11. Zhou, M. & Cao, C.G.L. (2008). The effect of haptic feedback on laparoscopic suturing and knot-tying: A learning curve study. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 880-884.
  12. Zhou, M., Tse, S., Derevianko, A., Jones, D.B., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2008). Learning Curve in Laparoscopic Suturing With Haptic Feedback. Presented at the 2008 meeting of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, Philadelphia, PA, April 9-12, 2008.
  13. Bell, A., Mandelupe, E., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2008). Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in VR Simulator with Haptic Feedback. Presented at the 2008 meeting of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, Philadelphia, PA, April 9-12, 2008
  14. Cao, C.G.L., Zhou, M.G., Jones, D.B., Schwaitzberg, S.D. (2007). Can surgeons think and operate with haptics at the same time? Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 11(11), 1564-1569.
  15. Bell, A. & Cao, C.G.L. (2007). Effects of artificial force feedback in laparoscopic surgery training simulators. Symposium on Haptics in Medical Applications (Chair: Greg Gerling). Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 2239-2243.
  16. Bell, A. & Cao, C.G.L. (2007). How does artificial force feedback affect laparoscopic surgery performance? Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 646-650.
  17. Zhou, M.G., Jones, D., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2007). Role of haptic feedback and cognitive load in surgical skill acquisition. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 631-635.
  18. Zhou, M.G., Perreault, J., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2007). Force perception threshold varies with experience in minimally invasive surgery. Symposium on Haptics in Medical Applications (Chair: Greg Gerling). Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 2228-2232.
  19. Zhou, M.G., Perreault, J., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2007). Shifts in force perception threshold in laparoscopic surgery with experience. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 636-640.
  20. Schoonmaker, R. & Cao, C.G.L. (2006). Vibrotactile feedback enhances force perception in minimally invasive surgery. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1029-1033.
  21. Schoonmaker, R.E. & Cao, C.G.L. (2006). Vibrotactile force feedback system for minimally invasive surgical procedures. Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 2464-2469.
  22. Perreault, J. & Cao, C.G.L. (2006). Effects of vision and friction on haptic perception. Human Factors, 48, 574-586.
  23. Nguyen, T., Schwaitzberg, S., Cao, C.G.L. (2006). Effect of friction and vision on simulated laparoscopic surgery performance. To be presented at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons Annual Scientific Session, Dallas, Texas, April 26-29, 2006.
  24. Perreault, J. & Cao, C.G.L. (2004). Effects of friction on haptic perception in simulated endoscopic environments. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 1704-1707.
  25. Rivera, C. & Cao, C.G.L. (2005). The effect of tool angle on force perception in a simulated laparoscopic environment. Presented at the New England Surgical Society Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, May 27, 2005.
  26. Avgerinos, D., Rivera, C., Schwaitzberg, S., Cao, C.G.L. (2004). Visual and force feedback in laparoscopic robotic manipulation. Presented at the New England Surgical Society. Montreal, Canada, September 30, 2004.
  27. Cao, C.G.L. & Schwaitzberg, S. (2004). An alternative to haptics in robotic surgery. Presented at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons Annual Scientific Session, Denver, CO., March 31-April 1, 2004. (p.154).
  28. Cao, C.G.L., Webster, J., Perreault, J., Schwaitzberg, S., Rogers, G. (2003). Visually perceived force feedback in simulated robotic surgery. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 1466-1470.
  29. Cao, C.G.L., & MacKenzie, C.L (1995). Effect of fatigue on grip force in a precision grip. J. Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 17 Supplement, 36.

Section 3: Spatial Orientation and Navigation

  1. Kesner J., Gavalis R., Wong P., and Cao C. (2011). Multifiber optical bend sensor to aid colonoscope navigation. Optical Engineering, 50, 124402.
  2. Gavalis, R.M., Wong, P.Y., Eisenstein, J.A., Lilge, L., Cao, C.G.L. (2010). Localized active-cladding optical fiber bend sensor. Optical Engineering, 49(6), 064401.
  3. Eisenstein, J.A., Wong, P.Y., Cao, C.G.L. (2010). Evaluation of techniques to model bend loss in multimode fibers for endoscopic application. Applied Optics, 49(12), 2220-2231.
  4. Zhang, L. & Cao, C.G.L. (2010). The effect of image orientation on a dynamic laparoscopic task. Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 774-778.
  5. Eisenstein, J., Wong, P.Y., Cao, C.G.L. (2010). Development of an endoscopic fiber optic shape tracker. Presented at the ASME 2010 5th Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference BioMed2010. Newport Beach, CA, September 20-21, 2010.
  6. Eisenstein, J., Gavalis, R., Wong, P.Y., Cao, C.G.L. (2009). Optical design of endoscopic shape-tracker using quantum dots embedded in fiber bundles. Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization XII 2009, Proceedings of SPIE, 74290X.
  7. Gavalis, R.M., Xing, H., Wong, P.Y., Lilge, L., Cao, C.G.L. (2008). Design of an endoscope shape tracker to guide navigation in colonoscopy. Journal of Medical Devices, 2(2), 027523.
  8. Cao, C.G.L. (2008). Navigation in a non-rigid environment: colonoscopy. Presented at the APA Division 21 Symposium, Boston, MA, August 14-17, 2008.
  9. Gavalis, R.M., Xing, H., Wong, P.Y., Lilge, L., Cao, C.G.L. (2008). Endoscope shape-tracker based on embedded fluorescent dyes in an optical fiber. Presented at the ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Proceedings of the ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference (SBC2008), Marco Island, FL, June 25-29, 2008.
  10. Gavalis, R., Xing, H., Wong, P.Y., Lilge, L., Cao, C.G.L. (2008). Design of a real-time guidance system for colonoscopy. Presented at the 2008 Design of Medical Devices Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April 15-17, 2008.
  11. Cao, C.G.L., Lilge, L., Wong, P., Xing, H., Zamarripa, N. (2008). Advanced shape tracking to improve flexible endoscopic diagnostics. In T. Kundu (Ed.), Health Monitoring of Structural and Biological Systems 2008, Proceedings of SPIE, 6935, 6935221-6935228.
  12. Shimotsu, R. & Cao, C.G.L. (2007). The effect of color-contrasting shadows on a dynamic 3D laparoscopic surgical task. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, 37(6), 1047-1053.
  13. Cao, C.G.L. & Milgram, P. (2007). Direction and location are not sufficient for navigating in nonrigid environments: An empirical study in augmented reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 16(6), 584-602.
  14. Shimotsu, R. & Cao, C.G.L. (2006).The performance effects of color-contrasting shadows on laparoscopic surgery. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1024-1028.
  15. Cao, C.G.L. (2004).Hand-eye co-ordination in simulated laparoscopic surgery. Supplement to Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26: 47.
  16. Cao, C.G.L., Waxberg, S., Smith, E. (2003).Role of landmark for spatial mapping in non-rigid environments. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 1545-1548.
  17. Cao, C.G.L. (2003). How do endoscopists maintain spatial awareness in colonoscopy? Presented at the International Ergonomics Association XVth Triennial Congress, August 25-29, 2003, Korea.
  18. Cao, C.G.L., Schwaitzberg, S., Rogers, G. (2003).Visuomotor constraints in laparoscopic surgery: a human factors engineering perspective. Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons Annual Scientific Session, March 12-15, 2003, Los Angeles, CA. (p. 154).
  19. Cao, C.G.L. (2001).Designing for spatial orientation in endoscopic environments. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 1259-1263.
  20. Cao, C.G.L. & Milgram, P. (2000).Disorientation in minimal access surgery: A case study. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and XIVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association. Vol 4, 169-172.
  21. Cao, C.G.L. (2000).Augmented reality displays for endoscopic orientation and navigation. Proceedings of the CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 91-92.
  22. Cao, C.G.L. (2000). Augmented reality displays for endoscopic orientation and navigation. Abstracts of the 31st International Symposium on Robotics/ 9th Annual Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Systems/PRECARN Conference. Montreal, Quebec, May 14-17, 2000.

Section 4: Human-Machine/Robot Interactions

  1. Cunningham, S., Chellali, A., Jaffre, I., Classe, J., Cao, C.G.L. (2013). Effects of experience and workplace culture in human-robot team interaction in robotic surgery: A case study. . International Journal of Social Robotics, 5(1), 75-88.
  2. Conrad, C., Konuk, Y., Werner, P., Cao, C.G.L., Warshaw, A., Rattner, D., Jones, D.B., Gee, D. (2010). The effect of defined auditory conditions versus mental loading on the laparoscopic motor skill performance of experts. Surgical Endoscopy, 24, 1347-1352.
  3. Barrios, L., Tsuda, S., Derevianko, A., Barnett, S., Moorman, D., Cao, C.G.L., Karavas, A.N., Jones, D.B. (2009). Framing family conversation after early diagnosis of iatrogenic injury and incidental findings. Surgical Endoscopy, 23(11), 2535-2542.
  4. Cao, C.G.L., Weinger, M., Slagle, J., Zhou, C., et al. (2008). Differences in Day and Night Shift Clinical Performance in Anesthesiology. Human Factors, 50(2), 276-290.
  5. Afram, A., Briedis, J., Fujiwara, D., Jacob, R., Cao, C.G.L., Kahle, D. (2007). Evaluation of semantic fisheye zooming to provide focus+context. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 459-463.
  6. Hall, T.J., Rudolph, J. W., Cao, C.G.L. (2006). Fixation and attention allocation in anaesthesiology crisis management: an abstraction hierarchy perspective. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1064-1067.
  7. Webster, J. & Cao, C.G.L. (2006). Lowering communication barriers in operating room technology. Human Factors, 48(4), 747-758.
  8. Cao, C.G.L., Ozdas, A., Slagle, J. (2006). Utilisation of computerised order entry protocols in the ICU for glucose management. To be presented at IEA 2006, Maastricht, the Netherlands, July 10-14, 2006.
  9. Goodell, K., Cao, C.G.L., Schwaitzberg, S. (2006). Effects of cognitive distraction on performance of laparoscopic surgical tasks. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques, 16(2), 94-98.
  10. Cao, C.G.L. & Rogers, G. (2006). Robotics in health care: HF issues in surgery. In: Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Patient Safety, Edited by Pascale Carayon. Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.
  11. Rivera, C. & Cao, C.G.L. (2005). Toward improved communication in laparoscopic surgery: Accounting for multiple frames of reference and mental rotations. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 999-1003.
  12. Cao, C.G.L. & Taylor, H. (2004). Effects of new technology on the operating room team. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Work with Computing Systems, special session on IT in Healthcare. 309-312.
  13. Goodell, K., Avgerinos, D., Cao, C.G.L., Schwaitzberg, S. (2004). The effects of distraction on performance of laparoscopic surgical tasks. Presented at the New England Surgical Society. Montreal, Canada, September 30, 2004.
  14. Webster, J. & Cao, C.G.L. (2004). Divided attention in using robotic surgical systems. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 1751-1754.
  15. Cao, C.G.L. & Rogers, G. (2004). Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery: The importance of human factors analysis and design. Surgical Technology International, Vol. 12: 73-86.
  16. Rogers, G. & Cao, C.G.L. (2004). Computer-enhanced instruments: The next generation of surgical robots. In: Primer of Robotic and Telerobotic Surgery, Edited by Garth Ballantyne. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Pub.
  17. MacKenzie, C.L., Cao, C.G.L., Ibbotson, J.A., Lomax, A.J. (2001). Hierarchical decomposition of laparoscopic surgery: A human factors approach to investigating the operating room environment. Journal of Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies (MITAT), Vol. 10 (3), 121-127.
  18. MacKenzie, C.L., Ibbotson, J.A., Cao, C.G.L., Lomax, A.J. (2000). Hierarchical decomposition of goal-directed activity: a valuable research and investigative tool for minimally invasive surgery. Poster presented at the 7th World Congress of Endoscopic Surgery. Singapore, May 28-June 5, 2000, 409.
  19. Cao, C.G.L., MacKenzie, C.L., Ibbotson, J.A., Turner, L.J., Blair, N.P., & Nagy, A.G. (1999). Hierarchical decomposition of laparoscopic procedures. In J.D. Westwood, H.M. Hoffman, R.A. Robb, D. Stredney (Eds.), Medicine Meets Virtual Reality: 7. IOS Press, Washington, DC. 83-89.
  20. Ibbotson, J.A., MacKenzie, C.L., Cao, C.G.L., & Lomax, A.J. (1999). Gaze patterns in laparoscopic surgery. In J.D. Westwood, H.M. Hoffman, R.A. Robb, D. Stredney (Eds.), Medicine Meets Virtual Reality: 7.The Convergence of Physical and Informational Technologies: Options for a New Era in Healthcare. IOS Press, Washington, DC. 154-160.
  21. MacKenzie, C.L., Ibbotson, J.A., Cao, C.G.L., & Lomax, A.J. (1998). Intelligent tools for minimally invasive surgeries: safety and error issues. In A.L. Scheffler & L.A. Zipperer (Eds.), Proceedings of Enhancing Patient Safety and Reducing Errors in Health Care. Chicago: National Patient Safety Foundation. 226-229.
  22. MacKenzie, C.L., Cao, C.G.L., Turner, L.J., Blair, N.P., & Nagy, A.G. (1997). Endoscopic viewing technologies on surgeons' performance. The 50th Annual Spring Meeting of the BC Surgical Society. Victoria, BC, April 30-May 3, 1997.
  23. Cao, C.G.L. & MacKenzie, C.L. (1997). Direct, 2-D vs. 3-D endoscopic viewing & surgical task performance. A Symposium on Evolving Technologies: Surgeons' Performance of Surgical Tasks. J. Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19, NASPSPA/ACSM Meeting. Denver, Colorado, May 28-June 1, 1997.
  24. Cao, C.G.L., MacKenzie, C.L., & Payandeh, S. (1996). Task and motion analyses in endoscopic surgery. Proceedings of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Controls Division. (Fifth Annual Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems), DSC-Vol. 58, 583-590.
  25. Cao, C.G.L., MacKenzie, C.L., & Payandeh, S. (1996). Precision and safety constraints in laparoscopic surgery. J. of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 18 Supplement, 19.
  26. Cao, C.G.L., MacKenzie, C.L., & Payandeh, S. (1995). Remote manipulation in endoscopic surgery: A task analysis approach. Abstract SCAPPS Annual Conference. Vancouver, B.C., October 1995, 62.
  27. Cao, C.G.L., MacKenzie, C.L., & Payandeh, S. (1995). Task analysis of laparoscopic surgery: Determination of requirements for endoscopic tool design. Abstracts 5th Annual IRIS/PRECARN Conference, Vancouver, Canada, June 1995.
  28. MacKenzie, C.L., Ibbotson, J.A., Cao, C.G.L, Lomax, A.J. Hierarchichal Decomposition of Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Valuable Research and Investigative Tool.

Section 5: Surgical Simulation & Skills Training

  1. Chellali, A., Ahn, W., Sankaranarayanan, G., Flinn, J.T., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Jones, D.B., De, S., Cao, C.G.L. (submitted Feb 7, 2014). Preliminary evaluation of the pattern cutting and the ligating loop virtual laparoscopic trainers. Surgical Endoscopy.
  2. Chellali, A., Zhang, L., Sankaranarayanan, G., Cao, C.G.L. (2014). Validation of the VBLaST peg transfer task: A first step towards an alternate training standard. Surgical Endoscopy. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-014-3538-2
  3. Zhang, L., Sankaranarayanan, G., Arikatla, V., Ahn, W., Grosdemouge, C., Rideout, J., Epstein, S., De, S., Schwaitzberg, S., Jones, D., Cao, C.G.L. (2013).  Characterizing the learning curve of the VBLaST (Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer).  Surgical Endoscopy, 27(10), 3603-3615. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-013-2932-5
  4. Arikatla, V.S., Sankaranarayanan, G., Ahn, W., Chellali, A., De, S., Cao, C.G.L., Hwabejire, J., DeMoya, M., Schwaitzberg, S., Jones, D.B. (2013).  Face and construct validation of a virtual peg transfer simulator.  Surgical Endoscopy, 27(5), 1721-1729.
  5. Zhang, L., Grosdemouge, C., Sankaranarayanan, G., Anh, W., Sreekanth, A.V., De, S., Jones, D., Schwaitzberg, S., Cao, C.G.L. (accepted). The added value of virtual reality technology and force feedback for surgical training simulators. IEA 2012 Meeting, Recife, Brazil, February 12-16, 2012.
  6. Sankaranarayanan, G., Lin, H., Arikatla, V.S., Mulcare, M., Zhang, L., Derevianko, A., Lim, R., Fobert, D., Cao, C.G.L., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Jones, D.B., De, S. (2010). Preliminary face and construct validation study of a virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques, 20(2), 153-157.
  7. Bell, A.K., Zhou, M., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2009). Using a dynamic training environment to acquire laparoscopic surgery skill. Surgical Endoscopy, 23, 2356-2363.
  8. Dezube, R., Dale, C., Weinger, M., Muldoon, R, Ayers, G. D., Zhong, S., Cao, C.G.L. (2008). Procedural learning in simulated colonoscopy. Presented at the 2008 International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare, San Diego, CA, January 13-16, 2008.
  9. O’Connor, A., Cao, C.G.L., Schwaitzberg, S.D., (2007). The impact of knowledge of results in surgical skills training. Surgical Endoscopy, 21, 312.
  10. Dezube, R., Dale, C., Weinger, M., Muldoon, R, Ayers, G. D., Zhong, S., Cao, C.G.L. (2007). Procedural learning in simulated colonoscopy. Presented at the NASPGHAN Annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, October 25 -27, 2007.
  11. Bell, A.K., Saide, M.B., Johanas, J.T., Leisk, G., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2007). Innovative dynamic minimally invasive training environment (DynaMITE). Surgical Innovation,14(3), 217-224.
  12. O’Connor, A., Schwaitzberg, S.D., Cao, C.G.L. (2008). How much feedback is necessary for learning to suture? Surgical Endoscopy, 22(7), 1614-1619.
  13. Waxberg, S. & Cao, C.G.L. (2006). Modeling surgical resident performance. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 994-998.
  14. Vuong, L., Schwaitzberg, S., Cao, C.G.L. (2006). What can motion derivatives tell us about skill performance. To be presented at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons Annual Scientific Session, Dallas, Texas, April 26-29, 2006.
  15. Avgerinos, D., Goodell, K., Waxberg, S., Cao, C.G.L., Schwaitzberg, S. (2005). Comparison of the sensitivity of physical and virtual laparoscopic training simulators to the user’s level of experience. Surgical Endoscopy, 19, 1211-1215.
  16. Waxberg, S., Schwaitzberg, S. & Cao, C.G.L. (2005). Effects of Video Game Experience on Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1047-1051.
  17. Gaulin, M. & Cao, C.G.L. (2005). Surgical Learning Aid: Reducing Uncertainty for the Novice during Simulated Minimally Invasive Surgery. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1089-1093.
  18. Waxberg, S., Goodell, K., Avgerinos, D., Schwaitzberg, S., Cao, C.G.L. (2004). Evaluation of physical versus virtual surgical training simulators. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 1675-1679.
  19. Cao, C.G.L., Waxberg, S., Park, B., Schwaitzberg, S. (2004). Comparison of real versus virtual surgical training models. Presented at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons Annual Scientific Session, Denver, CO., March 31-April 1, 2004. (p. 155).
  20. Lomax, A.J., Payandeh, S., Dill, J., MacKenzie, C.L., Cao, C.G.L. (2002). Design of a virtual laparoscopic training environment based on time and motion analyses of surgeons’ manipulative performance. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Medical Innovation and Technology. National Hospital, Oslo, Norway, September 5, 2002.
  21. Payandeh, S., Lomax, A.J., Dill, J., MacKenzie, C.L., Cao, C.G.L. (2002). On defining metrics for assessing laparoscopic surgical skills in a virtual training environment. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality: 10, Digital Upgrades: Applying Moore’s Law to Health, 02/10, 334-340. Newport Beach, CA, January 2002.
  22. MacKenzie, C.L., Graham, E.D., Cao, C.G.L., & Lomax, A.J. (1999). Virtual hand laboratory meets endoscopic surgery. In J.D. Westwood, H.M. Hoffman, R.A. Robb, D. Stredney (Eds.), Medicine Meets Virtual Reality: 7. The Convergence of Physical and Informational Technologies: Options for a New Era in Healthcare. IOS Press, Washington, DC. 212-218.
  23. Milgram, P. & Cao, C.G.L. (1999). Mixed reality in the OR. Abstracts of the 9th Annual Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Systems/PRECARN Conference, Toronto, Canada, June 7-9, 1999.
  24. MacKenzie, C.L., Cao, C.G.L., Nagy, A.G., Turner, L.J., & Lomax, A.J. (1997). Quantifying surgeons' performance. The International College of Surgeons XXXV North American Federation Congress: Enabling Technologies of the Minimal Access Revolution. Vancouver, BC, July 24-26, 1997.

Section 6: Engineering Education & Evaluation

  1. Cao, C.G.L. & Danahy, E. (2011).Increasing accessibility to medical robotics education. 2011 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications (TePRA), 49-53.
  2. Cao, C.G.L. (2007). Panel: Beyond see-one, teach-one: Applying HF to clinical training and education. (Panel chair: Klaus Christoffersen). Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 755-759.
  3. Cao, C.G.L., Kalsher, M., Vredenburg, A., Weinger, M., Israelski, E. (2007). Mock trial: Role of human factors in litigation involving an automatic external defibrillator (AED). Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1514-1516.
  4. Horn, M., Cao, C.G.L., Baise, L., Kilmer, M., Hassoun, S., Souvaine, D. (2004). Model for mentoring and retaining engineering students from underrepresented groups. In Proceedings of the ASEE New England Section 2004 Annual Conference.
  5. Cao, C.G.L. & O’Leary, J. (2003). Prosthesis project. In Science Explorer: Human Biology and Health Series D. Prentice Hall, Needham, MA.